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Object ID # 1956.015.005
Object Name Axe
Title Trade Axe & Pipe
Lexicon category 4: T&E For Materials
Date 19th-century?
Made Not yet determined (needs further research)
Place of Origin Unknown
Description Combination trade axe and pipe, 19th-century item? It still has its wooden pipestem handle. The end has a wooden shaped mouthpiece, with a deep score before it. The wood has a dark brown finish. Maker is unknown. The eye of the head is wider at the pipe bowl end and tapers somewhat towards the bit end. A seam can be seen nearby. The pipe bowl area is smooth-sided, and slightly bulbous, with a lip and a ring at its base. Below it, on the eye, there is a pointed metal area. The bit slightly flares. The underside of the hatchet head has a triangular-ended protrusion.
Makers mark None
Provenance Previously owned by Aubrey Holmes, who was a son of George Holmes, an Owen Sound, Ontario photographer. Owen Sound had a couple of Military Reserves created when it was surveyed in the 1850s. An old postcard view (early 20th-century) has been seen showing display cannon on the east hill area. They no longer exist, and we do not know what happened to them.

Brooke was originally surveyed as the Town plot of Brookeholm in 1857, after the Newash Ojibwa were moved away from the Newash Reserve. The area was slow to develop, due to speculation, but eventually became a residential area. Brooke was annexed to Owen Sound in 1909.

Mr. Aubrey Holmes, was the son of George Holmes & Mary (MacKey) Holmes. George Holmes (b. 1860?) was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Holmes. George's mother died in 1865 from smallpox, when he was five years of age. The Holmes family was related to the Steadman family. The Holmes family were previously located in Puslinch Township before they came to Grey County. Robert Holmes had a lime kiln at Holmes' Rock, along the Garafraxa Road (now 9th Avenue East near 6th Street East, Owen Sound, Grey County).

George collected some pottery sherd items from the former "Newash Reserve" area of what is now Brooke (the northwest area of Owen Sound, Ontario). There were formerly Ojibwa people in that area in the 1840s (and likely earlier), who hunted there and also had burial sites there. There was a Methodist mission established there in the 1840s to help the Newash Band adjust. An 1857 treaty moved the Newash Band to Cape Croker and the land was surveyed and slowly sold, due to speculation. Over the years, people in the Brooke area would occasionally find First Nations artefacts.

Combination trade axe and pipe items like this were trade items. The Ojibwa from the Saugeen area (which included what is now Owen Sound), used to travel on foot in the winter time to Niagara to receive "presents" from the government in the 1830s.

Since this item still has its wooden pipestem handle, it likely was not one of George's archaeological finds at Brooke, but likely was acquired from someone either from Saugeen or the Bruce Peninsula? The donor only provided the information of "Pipe tomahawk, Indian". Would it have been made in Britain?

In the 1911 census of Owen Sound, Ontario, George Holmes was then 50 years old. He and his wife Mary were residing at 895 4th Avenue East at that time. George was born in Owen Sound, Canada West in July of 1860.

Aubrey E. Holmes died in 1965.

Mr. Aubrey Holmes was the son of George Holmes & Mary (MacKey) Holmes. George Holmes (b. 1860?) was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Holmes. George's mother died in 1865 from smallpox, when he was five years of age. The Holmes family was related to the Steadman family. The Holmes family were previously located in Puslinch Township before they came to Grey County. Robert Holmes had a lime kiln at Holmes' Rock, along the Garafraxa Road (now 9th Avenue East near 6th Street East, Owen Sound, Grey County).
Collection First Nations, 19th-c Collection
Material Wood/Metal/Finish
Dimensions W-23 L-50.5 D-4 cm
Found Owen Sound area?
People Holmes, George
Holmes, Aubrey
Subjects First Nations
Trade Goods